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Students and Institutions: All applications have been moved to the new AIEF website.

Please go to www.aiefprogram.org to learn more.

These are the resources we used to create the "Learn more about Indian Education and its History" pages.

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Stoltz, Marguerite Bigler. The Dove Always Cried: Narratives of Indian School Life, with Stories by Her Pupils. Blacksburg, Virginia: Pocahontas Press, 1994.

Szasz, Margaret Connell. Education and the American Indian: The Road to Self-Determination since 1928. 3rd. ed., rev. and enl. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1999.

Trennert, Robert A., Jr. The Phoenix Indian School: Forced Assimilation in Arizona, 1891-1935. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today’s Questions. Lake Ann, Michigan: National Woodlands Publishing Company, 1993.